The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at six candidate genes (LEP, CAST, CAPN1, GHR, FABP4 and DGAT1) on fattening performance and carcass traits of Simmental bulls in Turkey. The analysis covered a total of 81 Simmental bulls grown on a private farm that were randomly selected for their fattening period for use in this study. Genotyping was performed using the PCRRFLP method. The S20T polymorphism at the CAST gene and the G316A polymorphism at the CAPN1 gene were associated with variation in final weight, fattening period, weight gain and average daily gain (P < 0.05). In addition, LEP A80V had a significant effect on hot and chilled carcass weight and dressing percentage (P < 0.05). There was no association between GHR S555G, FABP4 V110M and DGAT1 K232A markers with the traits analysed. These results suggested that focusing on the novel effects of LEP, CAST and CAPN1 gene polymorphisms on meat production traits might be useful for marker-assisted selection in Simmental cattle.