Large cell carcinomas of the lung are undifferentiated malignant epithelial tumors that lack cytologic features of small cell carcinoma, glandular cell carcinoma, or squamous cell differentiation. Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) is produced by alveolar type 11 cells and Clara cells. Most bronchioloalveolar carcinomas of the lung react positively for SP-A. Positive SP-A staining of large cell carcinoma of the lung could indicate that at least part of these tumors have the same cellular origin or differentiation as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The authors determined the SP-A staining of 63 large cell carcinomas of the lung by IHC. In 20 of the 63 (32%), the tumors stained positive for SP-A. This may imply that about one third of large cell carcinomas of the lung have a similar cellular origin or differentiation as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The significance of this finding for prognosis and new forms of treatment remains to be determined.