Soil pollution by trace metals derived from animal feed and manure in the Bursa region of Turkey

KILIÇ İ., Uguz S., AŞIK B. B.

TOXICOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY, vol.96, no.10, pp.1476-1488, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 96 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/02772248.2015.1029927
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1476-1488
  • Keywords: manure, feed, dairy cattle, trace metals, poultry, LIVESTOCK FEEDS, HEAVY-METALS, ENGLAND
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


The Bursa region of Turkey has important agricultural production areas. Animal producers use agricultural fields in this region for disposal of manure. Therefore, in this study the concentrations of the seven trace metals Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cd in 324 animal feed and manure samples from three dairy cattle, three laying hens farms, and three broiler farms have been determined. The average concentrations in dairy cattle manure were 130 (Zn), 150 (Mn), 4.2 (Cu), 6.8 (Ni), 44 (Cr), 0.8 (Pb), and 0.09 (Cd) mg kg(-1) dry weight; for laying hens manure 240 (Zn), 190 (Mn), 0.63 (Cu), 3.8 (Ni), 30 (Cr), 0.55 (Pb), and 0.12 (Cd) mg kg(-1) dry weight; and for broiler manure 240 (Zn), 280 (Mn), 1.4 (Cu), 3.8 (Ni), 35 (Cr), 3.4 (Pb), and 0.16 (Cd) mg kg(-1) dry weight. The calculated trace metal loading rate indicated that manure application might pose a potential risk to agricultural fields according to the current soil protection regulations of Turkey.