Glutamatergic Activation of Neuronostatin Neurons in the Periventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus


Serter Kocoglu S., Gok Yurtseven D. , Çakır C. , Minbay Z. , Eyigör Ö.

BRAIN SCIENCES, vol.10, no.4, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/brainsci10040217
  • Title of Journal : BRAIN SCIENCES
  • Keywords: neuronostatin, Glutamate, c-Fos, KAINIC ACID, RAT-BRAIN, SOMATOSTATIN, EXPRESSION, LOCALIZATION, TRANSPORTERS, PATHWAY

Abstract

Neuronostatin, a newly identified anorexigenic peptide, is present in the central nervous system. We tested the hypothesis that neuronostatin neurons are activated by feeding as a peripheral factor and that the glutamatergic system has regulatory influences on neuronostatin neurons. The first set of experiments analyzed the activation of neuronostatin neurons by refeeding as a physiological stimulus and the effectiveness of the glutamatergic system on this physiological stimulation. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: the fasting group, refeeding group, and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX)+refeeding group. We found that refeeding increased the phosphorylated signal transducers and transcription activator-5 (pSTAT5) expression in neuronostatin-positive neurons and that the CNQX injection significantly suppressed the number of pSTAT5-expressing neuronostatin neurons. The second set of experiments analyzed the activation pathways of neuronostatin neurons and the regulating effects of the glutamatergic system on neuronostatin neurons. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of glutamate receptor agonists (kainic acid, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5methyl-4-isoazepropionic acid (AMPA), and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)) or 0.9% NaCl. The number of c-Fos-expressing neuronostatin neurons significantly increased following the AMPA and NMDA injections. In conclusion, we found that the neuronostatin neurons were activated by peripheral or central signals, including food intake and/or glutamatergic innervation, and that the glutamate receptors played an important role in this activation.