Tablets in Education: Outcome Expectancy and Anxiety of Middle School Students

Gorhan M. F., Oncu S., ŞENTÜRK A.

KURAM VE UYGULAMADA EGITIM BILIMLERI, vol.14, no.6, pp.2259-2271, 2014 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.12738/estp.2014.6.2230
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.2259-2271
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


It is planned that every student in all primary, middle, and high schools (public schools) under the administration of the Turkish Ministry of National Education receive a tablet through the FATIH Project. Research shows that many teachers hold reservations toward students using tablets for educational purposes. The purpose of this study is to determine middle school students' perceptions regarding the integration of tablets into the learning process. Participants totaled 939 students in eight middle schools located in different cities throughout Turkey. Data were gathered through means of a survey (questionnaire) which included demographics like grade level and gender as well as items on tablet related issues and on student opinions. Two factors - outcome expectancy and tablet anxiety - were identified through an exploratory factor analysis. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted afterward in order to confirm and exemplify factors and their items. Two measurement models were tested, the latter returning a good model fit. The MANOVA test results showed that grade level affected the opinions on outcome expectancy, while gender affected tablet anxiety. It was found that 7th graders were the most optimistic of all grades in terms of outcome expectancy and that males were more withdrawn. It was also found that students with previous tablet experience were more optimistic regarding outcome expectancy.