This study was aimed to investigate the effect of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on apoptosis and oxidative stress values in the brain of rat. Rats were exposed to 100 and 500 mu T ELF-MF, which are the safety standards of public and occupational exposure for 2 h/day for 10 months. Brain tissues were immunohistochemically stained for the active (cleaved) caspase-3 in order to measure the apoptotic index by a semi-quantitative scoring system. In addition, the levels of catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total antioxidative capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OS!) were measured in rat brain. Final score of apoptosis and MPO activity were not significantly different between the groups. CAT activity decreased in both exposure groups (p<0.05), while TAC was found to be lower in ELF 500 group than those in ELF-100 and sham groups (p<0.05). MDA, TOS, and OSI values were found to be higher in ELF-500 group than those in ELF-100 and sham groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, apoptosis was not changed by long-term ELF-MF exposure, while both 100 and 500 mu T ELF-MF exposure induced toxic effect in the rat brain by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing antioxidant defense system.