Air-soil exchange of PCBs: levels and temporal variations at two sites in Turkey


Yolsal D., SALİHOĞLU G. , TAŞDEMİR Y.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.21, no.5, pp.3920-3935, 2014 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-013-2353-y
  • Title of Journal : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Page Numbers: pp.3920-3935
  • Keywords: Flux, Movement, Congeners, Temperature, Season, POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS PCBS, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS, HISTORICAL EMISSION INVENTORY, DRY DEPOSITION, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES, AGRICULTURAL SOILS, SURFACE SOILS, URBAN SOILS, CONGENERS

Abstract

Seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the air-soil intersection was determined for two regions: one with urban characteristics where traffic is dense (BUTAL) and the other representing the coastal zone (Mudanya). Fifty-one air and soil samples were simultaneously collected. Total PCB (I (82) pound PCB) levels in the soil samples collected during a 1-year period ranged between 105 and 7,060 pg/g dry matter (dm) (BUTAL) and 110 and 2,320 pg/g dm (Mudanya). Total PCB levels in the gaseous phase were measured to be between 100 and 910 pg/m(3) (BUTAL) and 75 and 1,025 pg/m(3) (Mudanya). Variations in the concentrations were observed depending on the season. Though the PCB concentrations measured in the atmospheres of both regions in the summer months were high, they were found to be lower in winter. However, while soil PCB levels were measured to be high at BUTAL during summer months, they were found to be high during winter months in Mudanya. The direction and amount of the PCB movement were determined by calculating the gaseous phase change fluxes at air-soil intersection. While a general PCB movement from soil to air was found for BUTAL, the PCB movement from air to soil was calculated for the Mudanya region in most of the sampling events. During the warmer seasons PCB movement towards the atmosphere was observed due to evaporation from the soil. With decreases in the temperature, both decreases in the number of PCB congeners occurring in the air and a change in the direction of some congeners were observed, possibly caused by deposition from the atmosphere to the soil. 3-CB and 4-CB congeners were found to be dominant in the atmosphere, and 4-, 5-, and 6-CBs were found to dominate in the surface soils.