The aim of this study was to investigate some of the growth and transcriptional factors originating from oocytes and granulosa cells in follicular fluid and to identify the relationships between the basic blood metabolite-metabolic hormones and intrafollicular lipo-polysaccharide (LPS) concentrations. Thirty cows included in the study were allocated into 2 groups comprising 15 cows with healthy preovulatory follicles (cyclic cows) and 15 cows with confirmed cystic follicles. The ovaries and uteri of all cows were assessed by transrectal ultrasonographic examination. Blood serum samples were collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 d after calving for analysis of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, glucose, IGF-1, ACTH, and cortisol. Ovaries and uteri were examined using transrectal ultrasound. Vaginal discharge was evaluated on the same days. Follicular fluid was also aspirated on days 35-55 from the healthy preovulatory follicles and cystic follicles using a transvaginal ovum pickup method. The densitometric levels of inhibin-a, growth and differentiation factor (GDF-9), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-6), and GATA-4 and GATA-6 proteins were analyzed by the Western blotting technique; the concentrations of antimullerian hormone (AMH), IGF-I, estradiol-17 beta (E2), and progesterone (P4) were determined by ELISA; and the concentrations of LPS in the follicular fluid were measured by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. The serum insulin, ACTH, and cortisol concentrations were higher in cystic cows than cyclic cows, but serum IGF-I concentrations were lower in cystic cows. The IGF-1 concentrations of cystic follicular fluids were lower, whereas AMH levels were significantly greater than those of healthy preovulatory follicular fluids. The cystic follicles had significantly lower expression levels of GDF-9, BMP-6, GATA-4, and GATA-6; in contrast, inhibin-alpha expression and LPS concentrations were significantly higher than in healthy preovulatory follicles. The proportion of pathologic vaginal discharge within 25 d postpartum in cystic cows were higher than in the cyclic group. In conclusion, it is suggested that intrafollicular dysregulation of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, growth, and transcriptional factors is affected by high intrafollicular LPS concentrations and systemic metabolic changes and these disturbances may be responsible for the generation of ovarian cysts. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.