Genomic Selection in Cattle Breeding: Recent Advances and Future Needs


Şentürk N., Ardıçlı S.

5th International Conference on Applied Engineering and Natural Sciences, Konya, Turkey, 10 - 12 July 2023, vol.5, no.337, pp.217

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • Volume: 5
  • City: Konya
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.217
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Significant progress has been achieved using phenotype selection for many economically important traits in cattle breeding. But, mainly, polygenic inheritance prevents the phenotype from effectively reflecting genotype in quantitative characteristics. Moreover, the presence of yield traits that can be recorded only postmortem (meat quality) and only in one sex (milk yield) created limitations for phenotype-based selection methods. As a result of advancements in molecular genetics and the application of new techniques, animal breeding has shifted towards selection practices that aim to efficiently obtain animals with desired genotypes, thereby rapidly reflecting the desired phenotypes while minimizing time and cost. Selection practices in animal breeding have extensively utilized DNA information to overcome the limitations of relying solely on phenotypic predictions in the selection process. Although initially successful, it became apparent that numerous quantitative traits in animal breeding were significantly more intricate than initially expected. To overcome this situation, a new genetics approach has been introduced to cattle breeding; Genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, the bovine genome has witnessed the utilization of GWAS, a practical and powerful genetics methodology aspect, to identify genetic markers associated with specific traits of interest. By employing this method, more precise and efficient genomic predictions can be generated, leading to its widespread adoption as an essential component for enhancing profitability in both beef and dairy cattle breeding on a global scale. In this work, we aim to discuss recent advances and to set out the future needs in beef and dairy cattle genomics regarding the GWAS.