Reconsidering the Fort at Civetot (Kibotos) and the Recent Discovery of a Submerged Building Complex in Nicomedia Bay

Gündüz S. , Akalan Gündüz I.

AL-MASAQ-JOURNAL OF THE MEDIEVAL MEDITERRANEAN, 2022 (Journal Indexed in AHCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/09503110.2022.2059641
  • Keywords: Civetot, Kibotos, underwater structure complex, Cluny, Sarepta screw weight


This article proposes a new approach to debates over the fort's location at Civetot (Kibotos), known to have been built by Emperor Alexios in the eleventh century before it disappeared from the historical record after the thirteenth. The crusades significantly changed the political and cultural structure of Asia Minor so understanding the early period of the crusades is important for gauging their impact in the region. The siege of Nicaea is referred to in many historical documents but earlier events are less frequently mentioned. The victory of the crusaders and the Byzantine army resulted in the conquest of Nicaea, which led to less emphasis being placed on previous struggles and the crusaders' defeat at Civetot, although it was a milestone for the crusaders and the Sultanate of Rum. This article combines historical sources, aerial photography, satellite images and underwater archaeological surveys to clarify details of the fort at Civetot.