The earliest relationship between Turkey and European countries in the veterinary field was initiated with the establishment of the first veterinary school in Turkey in 1842. Through the 19th and 20th centuries, many scientists, researchers and specialists from different part of Europe came to Turkey to contribute educational activities, institutionalization, organisation and legal restructuring of services related to veterinary medicine. One of the prominent results of these co-operations is seen in the researches of Dr. Nicolle, founder of the Imperial Institute of Bacteriology (1894), and Military Veterinarian Adil Mustafa, founder of the first Veterinary Bacteriology Institute in Turkey. They first succeeded in preparing therapeutically rinderpest serum and then discovered the rinderpest agent as filter-passing virus. This discovery, which was the success of joint effort of the, veterinary and medical sciences, as well as Turkish-French collaboration, made Nicolle's and Adil's names immortal in veterinary and science history. This review deals with the historical roots of veterinary bacteriology in Turkey and the international collaboration of Adil Mustafa and Maurice Nicolle, resulted the discovery of rinderpest agent.