Seventy-four Gram-negative, motile, slightly curved rod-shaped, microaerophilic, oxidase-positive and catalase-negative isolates, recovered from fecal samples of the Anatolian ground squirrel (Spermophilus xanthoprymnus) in Kayseri, Turkey, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Results of a genus-specific PCR indicated that all isolates belonged to the genus Campylobacter. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed the closest match as Campylobacter curvus DSM 6644(T) with identity levels of 96.41-96.70%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny of the 74 isolates, six isolates (faydin-G24, faydin-G52, faydin-G105, faydin-G114, faydin-G129 and faydin-G140(T)) were chosen as representatives for further characterization. The overall genome relatedness indices for the strain faydin-G140(T), compared to the most closely related type strain C. curvus ATCC 35224(T), were calculated as 15.2%, 72.5%, and 83.7% for digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), and average nucleotide identity (ANIb and ANIm), respectively. The G+C content and genome size of the strains ranged between 35.2-35.4 mol% and 1.7-1.8 Mb, respectively. Based on data obtained from the polyphasic taxonomy approach, including phenotypic characterization as well as genomic and chemotaxonomic analyses, these strains are concluded to represent a novel species, for which the name Campylobacter anatolicus sp. nov. is proposed with faydin-G140(T) as the type strain (=DSM 112311(T) = LMG 32238(T)) (C) 2021 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.