Squatting facets on the neck of the talus and extensions of the trochlear surface of the talus in late Byzantine males

Oygucu I., Kurt M., Ikiz İ., Erem T., Davies D.

Journal of Anatomy, vol.192, no.2, pp.287-291, 1998 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 192 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 1998
  • Doi Number: 10.1017/s0021878297003191
  • Journal Name: Journal of Anatomy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.287-291
  • Keywords: hyperdorsiflexion of the foot, bone remodelling
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Remodelling of bone occurs in response to physical stress. Habitual squatting is associated with modifications of the neck of the talus (squatting facets) and its trochlear/malleolar surfaces (trochlear extensions), and individual populations exhibit different incidences of these modifications that reflect their lifestyle. The occurrence of talar modifications was therefore investigated in a population of late Byzantine (13th century AD) adult male skeletons. Lateral squatting facets occurred most frequently (37.7%), but medial (0.6%), combined (0.6%) and continuous (gutter-like) facets (0.6%) were also observed. Lateral (8.0%), medial (10.9%) and continuous (lateral/central/medial) extensions (4.6%) of the trochlear surface were all present in the late Byzantine population. There was no evidence of side dimorphism. The occurrence of lateral squatting facets in the late Byzantine population was greater than that reported for modern Europeans, but similar to that reported for some populations of modern Indians. The frequency of occurrence of trochlear extensions in the late Byzantine population was substantially less than in modern Indian populations, but similar to modern Europeans. Therefore, it is unlikely that precisely the same factors determine the expression of squatting facets and trochlear extensions.