This paper reports the preparation and characterization of nonwoven jute composites. The untreated and chemically treated waste jute fibers were used to prepare needlepunched nonwoven fabrics. The treated waste jute fibers were also used to extract nanocellulose by pulverization, followed by acid hydrolysis. The prepared 2 wt% suspension of nanocellulose was spray coated over chemically treated nonwoven jute fabric. Afterward, the composites were prepared by compression molding technique. The surface morphologies of treated jute fibers and nanocellulose were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The crystallinity of chemically treated jute fibers and nanocellulose was measured by X-ray diffraction. The effect of chemical treatments and nanocellulose spray coating over nonwoven jute reinforcement on the tensile, flexural, drop weight impact, and compression after impact properties of prepared composites has been investigated. The results revealed the improvement in mechanical properties after chemical treatments and nanocellulose coating. The overall better results were shown by composite sample prepared from chemically treated followed by nanocellulose sprayed jute nonwoven reinforcement.