Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
Background: In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the risk of thromboembolism increases due to hemostatic changes secondary to the primary disease and due to treatment-related factors. In this multicenter study, we aimed to research the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) thrombosis occurring during treatment, hereditary and acquired risk factors, clinical and laboratory features of patients with thrombosis, treatment approaches, and thrombosis-related mortality and morbidity rates in pediatric ALL patients. Procedure: Pediatric patients who developed CNS thrombosis during ALL treatment from 2010 to 2021 were analyzed retrospectively in 25 different Pediatric Hematology Oncology centers in Türkiye. The demographic characteristics of the patients, symptoms associated with thrombosis, the stage of the leukemia treatment during thrombosis, the anticoagulant therapy applied for thrombosis, and the final status of the patients recorded through electronic medical records were determined. Results: Data from 70 patients with CNS thrombosis during treatment, out of 3968 pediatric patients with ALL, were reviewed. The incidence of CNS thrombosis was 1.8% (venous: 1.5 %; arterial: 0.03%). Among patients with CNS thrombosis, 47 had the event in the first 2 months. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was the most commonly used treatment with a median of 6 months (min–max: 3–28 months). No treatment-related complications occurred. Chronic thrombosis findings occurred in four patients (6%). In five (7%) patients who developed cerebral vein thrombosis, neurological sequelae (epilepsy and neurological deficit) remained. One patient died related to thrombosis, and the mortality rate was 1.4%. Conclusion: Cerebral venous thrombosis and, less frequently, cerebral arterial thrombosis may develop in patients with ALL. The incidence of CNS thrombosis is higher during induction therapy than during other courses of treatment. Therefore, patients receiving induction therapy should be monitored carefully for clinical findings suggestive of CNS thrombosis.