The limitations of conventional cereal breeding programmes require simple and rapid new breeding technologies such as doubled-haploid production. One of the various techniques used to obtain in vitro haploids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is anther culture. In this study the effects of cultivar, pre-treatment of spikes, callus induction media and carbon sources added into induction medium on anther culture response of Turkish wheats were investigated. Anthers from 5 commercial cultivars (Basri Bey, Golia, Marmara 86, Gonen and Pehlivan) grown in the field were excised and cultured on 2 nutrient media (N6 and Potato). Three cold pre-treatments (1, 2 and 3 weeks at +4 degreesC) and 2 carbon sources (sucrose and maltose) were tested Hexaploid wheat cultivars showed low response to current anther culture technique. The 2-week-pre-treatment of spikes resulted in the highest callus induction whereas no callus was obtained from 3-week-pre-treatment. No significant differences was observed between the cultivars. Callus formation within cultivars varied between 3.0 and 7.0 per 1000 anthers plated Basri Bey produced the highest callus formation among the cultivars used. Sub cultures of calluses on a regeneration media caused green zones. Callus induction medium containing sucrose caused a significant increase in callus production.