The role of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) gene polymorphisms in the etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is not clearly understood. We evaluated this polymorphism in unexplained pregnancy losses in a group of Turkish women. In our prospective case-control study, 45 well-characterized RPL cases were examined for their Apo E genotypes, based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified fragments. The observed genotypes were compared with those obtained from equal number matched controls. We observed similar Apo E genotypes and E2, E3 and E4 allele frequency distribution among RPL patients and controls. The allele frequencies obtained in patients and controls, respectively, were as follows: E2=8 (9%) and 12 (13.4%) (P=0.342), E3=66 (73.3%) and 60(66.6%) (P=0.328) and E4=16 (17.7%) and 18 (20%) (P=0.703). Our data did not support the association of Apo E gene polymorphisms with RPL as reported by previous studies. We endorse adequate characterization of RPL cases and adequate sample size prior to addressing such studies.