With a descriptive survey, the authors tried to ascertain the prevalence of certain neurological disorders among children aged up to five years. Questionnaires were administered to mothers and their children were divided into two groups (559 children): neurologically healthy and suspect. Suspect children were examined by a paediatrician, who assigned a diagnosis where appropriate (361 children). A control group was selected from the healthy children (420 children), and they were neurologically examined with the suspect children. Cases and controls were compared for family history, and pregnancy and delivery risks. The most frequent condition found was febrile convulsions (0.45 per cent), followed by epilepsy (0.9 per cent) and cerebral palsy (0.5 per cent).