Assessment of Undergoing a Pap Smear Screening Test and Knowledge Levels of Women Aged 21-65 Years Based on theHealth Belief Model


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Çeki L., Özdemir A.

Türkiye Klinikleri Hemşirelik Bilimleri Dergisi, vol.13, no.4, pp.858-868, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: This study determined women's experiences and awareness of undergoing a Pap smear test for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Material and Methods: The population consisted of 1,193 women registered at a family health center. The sample consisted of 291 people with an error margin of 5% and 0.5 probability. Results: This study found no statistically significant associations between undergoing a Pap smear test and the Health Belief Model Scale (HBMS) sub-dimensions (p>0.05). Moreover, awareness of the reasons for a Pap smear test was not associated with the HBMS sensitivity, caring, and health motivation sub-dimensions (p>0.05) but was associated with the benefit motivation and obstacles sub-dimensions (p<0.05). The awareness of undergoing a Pap smear test based on the menstrual cycle was not associated with the HBMS sensitivity sub-dimension (p>0.05) but was associated with the caring, benefit motivation, health motivation, and obstacles sub-dimensions (p<0.05). Awareness of the preparatory stages before the Pap smear test was not associated with the HBMS sensitivity, caring, and health motivation sub-dimensions (p>0.05) but was associated with the benefit motivation and obstacles sub-dimensions (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicates that the HBM is important for encouraging women to undergo early diagnostic tests for cervical cancer and designing and maintaining health education programs. Public health nurses should plan actions that support and encourage women based on the HBM in health-related education to contribute to the efforts of increasing the rate of participation in preventative screenings.

Keywords: Pap smear test; cervical cancer; health belief model