Glycyl-glutamine, an endogenous beta-endorphin-derived peptide, inhibits morphine-induced conditioned place preference, tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal


Cavun S., Goktalay G. , Millington W.

JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS, vol.315, no.2, pp.949-958, 2005 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 315 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1124/jpet.105.091553
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS
  • Page Numbers: pp.949-958

Abstract

Glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln; beta-endorphin(30-31)) is an endogenous dipeptide synthesized from beta-endorphin(1-31). Previous investigations have shown that Gly-Gln inhibits the cardiovascular and respiratory depression caused by morphine and beta-endorphin(1-31), but it does not interfere with opioid analgesia. In this study, we tested whether Gly-Gln administration would influence morphine-induced conditioned place preference, tolerance, dependence, or withdrawal. For place preference experiments, rats were conditioned with morphine sulfate (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) or saline on alternate days for 6 days and tested on day 7. Glycyl-glutamine (1-100 nmol i.c.v.) pretreatment inhibited acquisition of a conditioned place preference to morphine significantly. Glycyl-glutamine (100 nmol i.c.v.) also blocked expression of a pre-established morphine place preference, but it did not interfere with acquisition of a conditioned place preference to palatable food, and it did not produce place preference or aversion when given alone to morphine-naive animals. To induce antinociceptive tolerance, rats were treated with morphine (10 mg/kg i.p.) twice daily for 7 days, and morphine antinociception was evaluated with the tail-flick test. Glycylglutamine (100 nmol i.c.v.) pretreatment delayed the onset of morphine tolerance significantly and partially reversed pre-established tolerance. Morphine dependence and withdrawal were assessed by measuring naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. Glycyl-glutamine inhibited the development of morphine dependence when given to rats twice daily immediately before they received morphine (10 mg/kg i.p.) and suppressed withdrawal symptoms of rats with subcutaneously implanted morphine pellets when administered 5 min before withdrawal was induced with naloxone. Glycyl-glutamine thus attenuates morphine-induced conditioned place preference, tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal without compromising morphine analgesia.