Vertebral bone, joints and ligaments on the cervical spine are structures that maintain the stability of the spine and protect the neurovascular structures. Determining the detailed anatomical location of the intervertebral foramen and unco-vertebral (UV) region with respect to the vertebral bone, joint and ligaments is critical when choosing the safest surgical approach to the cervical spine. We studied the microscopic detailed anatomy of the dural covering and posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) in eight cadaver specimens and the relevance of these structures in the UV region from C4 to C7. The uncinate process (UP) and its covering ligaments are mechanical barriers that prevent the nerve root and the vertebral artery against unintentional surgical damage. Dissection at the posterolateral surface of the UP revealed a separate perivascular fibroligamentous tissue (PVFLT) that originates from the PLL. The recognition of the PVFLT may provide for safe surgery by protecting the neural and vascular structures during decompression in the UV region.