Atmospheric concentration, spatial variations, and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in urban and semi-urban areas using passive air samplers in Bursa, Turkey


Sari M. F. , ESEN F.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.29, pp.32082-32092, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-021-17987-1
  • Title of Journal : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Page Numbers: pp.32082-32092
  • Keywords: Passive air samplers, PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, Spatial variation, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS PCBS, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES OCPS, DIPHENYL ETHERS PBDES, AMBIENT AIR, SEASONAL-VARIATIONS, TEMPORAL VARIATIONS, DIAGNOSTIC RATIOS, SOIL EXCHANGE, GAMMA-HCH

Abstract

In this study, the concentration of ambient persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured for 12 months in urban and semi-urban areas using a passive air sampler. During the sampling period, a total of 14 PAH ( n-ary sumation (14)PAH) concentrations measured in urban and semi-urban areas were found to be 54.4 +/- 22.6 ng/m(3) and 51.7 +/- 34.3 ng/m(3), respectively. Molecular diagnostic ratios (MDRs) were used to determine PAH sources. According to the MDR values, combustion sources were the most important PAH sources in both sampling areas. However, since the urban area is close to the industrial zone, the combustion sources occurred at high temperatures (> 800 degrees C), while the sources in the semi-urban area generally consisted of petrogenic fuel combustion. n-ary sumation 50PCB concentrations measured in the urban and semi-urban areas were found to be 522.5 +/- 196.9 pg/m(3) and 439.5 +/- 166.6 pg/m(3), respectively. Homologous group distributions were used to determine the source of PCBs. According to the homologous group distributions, tri-, tetra-, and penta-chlorinated PCBs were dominant in both sampling areas. n-ary sumation 10OCP concentrations measured in urban and semi-urban areas were found as 242.5 +/- 104.6 pg/m(3) and 275.9 +/- 130.9 pg/m(3), respectively. Also, alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH and beta-/(alpha + gamma)-HCH ratios were used to determine the source of OCPs. Lindane was the predominant OCP in both sampling areas.