Aim: To define the risk factors for relaparotomy after cesarean delivery (RLACD) and related maternal near-miss event due to bleeding. Methods: In this retrospective descriptive case-control study, women who underwent RLACD (n = 46) only for bleeding between 2012 and 2017 were reviewed. Factors that could predict relaparotomy and related near-miss event were evaluated. Maternal characteristics, laboratory findings and surgical features were compared with a control group (n = 230) that included noncomplicated cesarean deliveries (CD). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors for relaparotomy. Results: RLACD for bleeding was required in 0.26% of patients and the incidence increased gradually over years (0.16% in 2013 versus 0.44% in 2017). Mean interval between CD and subsequent relaparotomy was 15.7 +/- 3.2 hours. The sources of bleeding in descending order of frequency included; uterine fundus and placental bed (39.1%), cervix (21.7%), undetermined (17.3%), superior epigastric artery (13%), superficial epigastric artery (8.1%). Longer duration of CD (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) 1.82, 95% CI 1.02-2.53), increased number of prior CDs (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.09-5.78), preeclampsia (aOR 3.48, 95% CI 1.21-7.19) were found to be independent risk indicators for RLACD. Moreover, longer duration of interval between CD and relaparotomy (p = .005), longer relaparotomy duration (p = .012) and greater drop in hemoglobin level (p = .001) were found to be the predictors of maternal near-miss event. Conclusions: Patients with identified risk factors should be managed properly in order to prevent relaparotomy and near-miss event after CD. Also, urgent decision of surgical intervention might reduce the risk of maternal near-miss event.