Androgen-binding protein (ABP) and the posterior lobe hormone oxytocin (OT) were co-localized in male rat reproductive organs. Immunostaining of serial semi-thin sections revealed a high rate of coexistence of both antigens in Sertoli cells and in the epithelial cells of the prostate. There was a considerably less co-localization of OT and ABP in epithelial cells of the epididymis, and in the different tissues of the ductus deferens. In situ hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides complementary to a fragment of ABP mRNA showed specific staining in the same sites that were immunostained for ABP. ABP was isolated by affinity chromatography from homogenates of testis, epididymis, prostate and the content of the prostate lumen. Identical protein patterns could be shown with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in all samples except for the epididymis indicating that ABP structure is similar in all these tissues. ABP seems to be expressed in specified cells throughout the male rat reproductive tract. Most of these cells appear to be oxytocinergic. ABP and OT have previously been detected in the ejaculate. The observed epithelial cells are likely to be their source.