The Use of Vacuum Impregnation for Debittering Green Olives


TAMER C. E. , İNCEDAYI B., Yildiz B., ÇOPUR Ö. U.

FOOD AND BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY, vol.6, no.12, pp.3604-3612, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 6 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11947-012-0971-x
  • Journal Name: FOOD AND BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3604-3612
  • Keywords: Green olive, Debittering, Vacuum impregnation, Oleuropein, TABLE OLIVES, OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION, SODIUM-CHLORIDE, PHENOLIC-COMPOUNDS, FERMENTATION, OLEUROPEIN, CARROTS, GLUCOSE, BLACK, ENRICHMENT
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The aim of this research was to assess the possibility of shortening the length of the debittering process for green table olive 'Domat' cultivar by vacuum impregnation (VI). For this purpose, debittering was carried out with NaCl (3 %), NaOH (1.5 %) and NaOH (1.5 %) + NaCl (3 %) solutions at atmospheric conditions and under vacuum (68 kPa). The effects of these applications on some physicochemical properties (total dry matter, total ash, titratable acidity, salt, protein, oil, oleuropein, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and colour) of the processed samples were determined. Total dry matter, titratable acidity, salt, protein and oil contents of the samples changed between 24.23 and 27.90, 0.22 and 0.45, 2.27 and 2.58, 0.50 and 1.26 and 6.79 and 9.42 % (w/w), respectively. Colour parameters (lightness (L*); redness (a*); yellowness (b*)) of the processed olives were measured as between 41.72 and 51.29, 15.09 and 13.30 and 22.79 and 34.84, respectively. Hue angles of the processed samples were changed between 59.78 and 68.52. VI was a useful tool for the shortening of the period of debittering process. Use of NaOH combined with NaCl in VI process caused the debittering period to decrease to 6 h. However, reduction of the amount of total phenolic compounds was the highest (21.43 %) in this condition. Use of alkali for debittering caused more dry matter diffusion from olive to the solution. There was no statistically significant difference between the oleuropein and total ash contents of the processed samples (p < 0.01). Alkali treatment also caused more oil loss from the olives. Antioxidant activity of the samples reduced up to 59.89 %. This research was the first using VI for debittering of olives; further studies are necessary to optimise process conditions of debittering for limiting loss of natural antioxidants and other components and to ensure maximum benefits to the consumer.