Synaptic Membrane Synthesis in Rats Depends on Dietary Sufficiency of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium: Relevance for Alzheimer's Disease


CANSEV M. , Turkyilmaz M., Sijben J. W. C. , Sevinc C. , Broersen L. M. , van Wijk N.

JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE, vol.59, no.1, pp.301-311, 2017 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 59 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.3233/jad-170081
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.301-311
  • Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, antioxidants, brain, docosahexaenoic acid, membranes, phospholipids, uridine, DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, LIPID-PEROXIDATION, TISSUE-DAMAGE, FATTY-ACIDS, BRAIN, URIDINE, PLASMA, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, BIOSYNTHESIS

Abstract

Chronic consumption of a diet enriched with nutritional precursors of phospholipids, including uridine and the polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was shown previously to enhance levels of brain phospholipids and synaptic proteins in rodents. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium may directly affect the breakdown or synthesis of membrane phospholipids. The present study investigated the necessity of antioxidants for the effectiveness of supplementation with uridine plus DHA and EPA(as fish oil) in rats. Rats were randomized to four treatment groups and received, for 6 weeks, one of four experimental diets, i.e., a diet low in antioxidants, a diet high in antioxidants, a diet low in antioxidants supplemented with DHA+EPA+uridine, or a diet high in antioxidants supplemented with DHA+EPA+uridine. On completion of dietary treatment, rats were sacrificed, and brain levels of phospholipids, synaptic proteins, and two enzymes involved in phospholipid synthesis (choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, PCYT1A, and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase, CEPT1) were analyzed. Levels of phospholipids, the pre-and post-synaptic proteins Synapsin-1 and PSD95, and the enzymes PCYT1A and CEPT1 were significantly enhanced by combined supplementation of DHA+EPA+uridine and antioxidants and not enhanced by supplementation of DHA+EPA+uridine with insufficient antioxidant levels. Our data suggest that dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium are essential for the phospholipid precursors' effects on increasing levels of membrane phospholipids and synaptic proteins, the indirect indicators of synaptogenesis. Their concomitant supply may be relevant in Alzheimer's disease patients, because the disease is characterized by synapse loss and lower plasma and brain levels of phospholipid precursors and antioxidants.