Objective: To determine the importance of placental membrane microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (MCP) in preeclamptic and normal placentas and evaluate the association between MCP and neonatal complications in preeclamptic patients. Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-control study, microscopic examination of placentas was performed, including MCP count, in 33 preeclamptic and 35 normal control pregnant women from December 2008 to May 2009. The MCP were counted in placentas for each patient and modeled as a continuous variable to assess the difference between the two groups. Results: The mean MCP count was similar for preeclamptic (7 2) and control patients (7 2; not significant). A weak positive correlation was noted between placental weight and MCP (r = 0.253; p <= 0.04). In the preeclamptic patients, mean MCP count was significantly higher for neonates that did not have neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) (p <= 0.05) and who did not admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) than admitted to NICU (P <=.03). The risk for developing NRDS was 20.3-fold greater in neonates of preeclamptic patients who did not have than had MCP (odds ratio, 20.3 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 48; P <=.05). The MCP count cutoff value was <= 1 for developing NRDS (sensitivity 83%; specificity, 70%). Conclusion: The absence of MCP was significantly associated with the development of NRDS in neonates. The MCP count was inversely associated with the risk of NRDS in newborns of high-risk pregnancies caused by preeclampsia.