Polystoma nacialtuneli n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of the eastern spadefoot, Pelobates syriacus from Turkey. This is the fifth polystome species known from Turkey and the third species in Pelobates. We show that this new parasite species can be distinguished from other polystome species in the area by a combination of characteristics, including parasite size and the shape and size of the hamuli. Polystoma pelobatis from Pelobates cultripes has a pair of well-developed hamuli, while P. fuscus from Pe. fuscus characteristically has a pair of underdeveloped hamuli barely larger than the marginal hooklets. Polystoma nacialtuneli n. sp. has well-developed hamuli that vary significantly in shape. Phylogenetic relationships of P. nacialtuneli n. sp. within Polystoma, supplemented with molecular divergences estimated from internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences, indicate that they are well separated from their closest relatives, i.e. P. fuscus and P. pelobatis from Pe. fuscus and Pe. cultripes, respectively.