Introduction. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that may affect almost all organ systems. Renal involvement is the most significant prognostic factor. Renal biopsy findings play an important role in treatment decision. Ki-67 is a monoclonal antibody that is only found in proliferative cells. This study aimed to investigate the proliferative activity in renal biopsy specimens of patients with lupus nephritis using the Ki-67 monoclonal antibody, and to compare the proliferative index between different subgroups of patients.