Fabrication of Electron Beam Melted Titanium Aluminide: The Effects of Machining Parameters and Heat Treatment on Surface Roughness and Hardness

Işık M.

METALS, vol.13, no.12, pp.1952-1969, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/met13121952
  • Journal Name: METALS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1952-1969
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Titanium aluminide alloys have gained attention for their lightweight and high-performance properties, particularly in aerospace and automotive applications. Traditional manufacturing methods such as casting and forging have limitations on part size and complexity, but additive manufacturing (AM), specifically electron beam melting (EBM), has overcome these challenges. However, the surface quality of AM parts is not ideal for sensitive applications, so post-processing techniques such as machining are used to improve it. The combination of AM and machining is seen as a promising solution. However, research on optimizing machining parameters and their impact on surface quality characteristics is lacking. Limited studies exist on additively manufactured TiAl alloys, necessitating further investigation into surface roughness during EBM TiAl machining and its relationship to cutting speed. As-built and heat-treated TiAl samples undergo machining at different feed rates and surface speeds. Profilometer analysis reveals worsened surface roughness in both heat-treated and non-heat-treated specimens at certain machining conditions, with higher speeds exacerbating edge cracks and material pull-outs. The hardness of the machined surfaces remains consistent within the range of 32–33.1 HRC at condition 3C (45 SFM and 0.1 mm/tooth). As-built hardness remains unchanged with increasing spindle and cutting head speeds. Conversely, heat-treated condition 3C surfaces demonstrate greater hardness than condition 1A (15 SFM, and 0.04 mm/tooth), indicating increased hardness with varying feed and surface speeds. This suggests crack formation in the as-built condition is considered to be influenced by factors beyond hardness, such as deformation-related grain refinement/strain hardening, while hardness and the existence of the α2 phase play a more significant role in heat-treated surfaces.