Anti-Müllerian hormone: A novel biomarker for detecting bovine freemartinism

Koca D., NAK Y., Şendağ S., NAK D., Turgut A. O., Avcilar T., ...More

REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, vol.59, no.2, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 59 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/rda.14542
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


The anti-M & uuml;llerian hormone (AMH) indicates ovarian reserve in cattle, maintaining a consistent trajectory post-puberty. In heterosexual pregnancies, the development of the M & uuml;llerian duct in female foetuses is inhibited, resulting in an anticipated minimal or absent ovarian reserve capacity. This investigation aimed to compare AMH levels in healthy Holstein heifers that had reached puberty with those of freemartin animals of the same breed and age. The study incorporated Holstein heifers reaching puberty between 11 and 15 months of age in Group 1 (G1, n = 20) and freemartin animals in Group 2 (G2, n = 19, 16). AMH measurements (AMH-1/AMH-2) were recorded at 12-day intervals for the study participants. Notably, AMH levels in three freemartin animals could not be detected, prompting statistical analysis based on measurements from the remaining 16 freemartin animals in G2. A statistically significant correlation was observed between two separate measurements in G1 and G2 (p < .001). Furthermore, AMH-1 and AMH-2 levels were statistically higher in G1 than in G2 (p < .001). In G1, AMH-1 levels ranged from 227 to 677 pg/mL, with an average of 367.3 +/- 25.5 pg/mL, and AMH-2 levels ranged from 234 to 645 pg/mL, with an average of 380.8 +/- 24.4 pg/mL. Conversely, in G2, AMH-1 levels ranged from 10 to 72 pg/mL, with an average of 26.8 +/- 4.44 pg/mL, and AMH-2 levels ranged from 12 to 68 pg/mL, with an average of 28.75 +/- 4.18 pg/mL. The mean AMH levels in G1 were approximately 14 times higher than in G2 (p < .001). Consequently, ROC analysis utilizing AMH-1 and AMH-2 data established cut-off values of <= 72 and <= 68 pg/mL respectively for distinguishing freemartin animals. In conclusion, AMH could be used as a reliable biomarker for identifying Holstein freemartin animals.