Primary immune regulatory disorders (PIRD): expanding the mutation spectrum in Turkey and identification of sixteen novel variants.

Aykut A., Durmaz A., Karaca N., Gulez N., Genel F., Celmeli F., ...More

Immunologic research, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12026-024-09477-6
  • Journal Name: Immunologic research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Human Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEIs) encompass a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, ranging from mild cases to severe, life-threatening types. Among these, Primary Immune Regulatory Disorders (PIRDs) constitute a subset of IEIs characterized by diverse clinical phenotypes, prominently featuring severe atopy, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, hyperinflammation, autoinflammation, and susceptibility to malignancies. According to the latest report from the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS), PIRDs arise from mutations in various genes including LYST, RAB27A, AP3B1, AP3D1, PRF1, UNC13D, STX11, STXBP2, FAAP24, SLC7A7, RASGRP1, CD70, CTPS1, RLTPR, ITK, MAGT1, PRKCD, TNFRSF9, SH2DIA, XIAP, CD27 (TNFRSF7), FAS (TNFRSF6), FASLG (TNFSF6), CASP10, CASP8, FADD, LRBA, STAT3, AIRE, ITCH, ZAP70, TPP2, JAK1, PEPD, FOXP3, IL2RA, CTLA4, BACH2, IL2RB, DEF6, FERMT1, IL10, IL10RA, IL10RB, NFAT5, TGFB1, and RIPK1 genes. We designed a targeted next-generation sequencing (TNGS) workflow using the Ion AmpliSeq (TM) Primary Immune Deficiency Research Panel to sequence 264 genes associated with IEIs on the Ion S5 (TM) Sequencer. In this study, we report the identification of 38 disease-causing variants, including 16 novel ones, detected in 40 patients across 15 distinct PIRD genes. The application of next-generation sequencing enabled rapid and precise diagnosis of patients with PIRDs.