Objective. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a childhood rheumatic disease of unknown etiology. Two subgroups of JIA, i.e., oligoarticular and polyarticular, are thought to have an autoimmune component, and show a higher female:male ratio. Skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) has previously been shown to be associated with scleroderma and autoimmune thyroiditis, 2 autoimmune disorders occurring predominantly in females. This study was undertaken to extend the analysis to the pediatric age group and to determine the XCI profiles of patients with JIA.