Morphology and morphometry of the foramen venosum: a radiographic study of CBCT images and literature review

Gorurgoz C., PAKSOY C. S.

SURGICAL AND RADIOLOGIC ANATOMY, vol.42, no.7, pp.779-790, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00276-020-02450-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.779-790
  • Keywords: Anatomy, Cone-beam CT, Foramen Vesalius, Radiology, Sphenoid bone, SKULL-BASE, OVALE, VESALIUS, SIZE, ACCURACY, SINUS, FOSSA, CT
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose The goal of this study was to assess the morphological variations, location, and morphometric measurements of the foramen venosum (FV) and analyse its interrelationships with other foramina on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. Methods A total of 269 individual CBCT scans were evaluated retrospectively. The presence or absence of FVs and their diameter, shape, and confluence to foramen ovale were recorded. The distances between anatomic structures and the FV were calculated. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed for the collected data. Results Of the 269 cases studied, nine were excluded due to duplicate foramina that made statistical analysis difficult. In the 260 evaluated scans, the FV was identified in 190 individuals (73.1%). The incidence was 148 (56.9%) on the right side and 152 (58.5%) on the left side. The FV was present unilaterally in 80 (30.8%) and bilaterally in 110 (42.3%) out of the 260 individuals. The mean maximum diameter of FV was 1.75 +/- 1.27 mm, and no significant differences related to gender and age were detected (p < 0.05). The most prevalent foramen shape was the oval type (45.9% on the right side and 40.8% on the left side). Conclusion FV is a very frequent anatomical variation. This foramen can exist either bilaterally or unilaterally. No significant differences related to sex, side, or age could be found in the present study. The anatomic characteristics of FV should be considered during interventions in the middle cranial fossa. CBCT imaging with lower radiation doses and thin slices may prove useful before surgical skull-base procedures.