Failure in dry period vaccination strategy for bovine viral diarrhea virus


Toker E. B. , Aytoğu G. , Kadiroğlu B. , Ates O., Yeşilbağ K.

VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY, vol.247, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 247
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108797
  • Title of Journal : VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY
  • Keywords: BVDV-1, Dairy cattle, Dry period, Persistent infection, Sequencing, Vaccination, PROTECTION, INFECTION, DIVERSITY, DISEASE

Abstract

Bovine viral diarrhea is a common disease of cattle and has significant impact on animal welfare worldwide. There are fundamental approaches i.e. elimination of persistently infected animals, vaccination and biosecurity measures for effective control and eradication of BVD virus (BVDV). By this study, the presence of persistent infection with divergent BVDV subgenotype in the calves in a dairy herd having regular vaccination program was investigated. In the herd, vaccinated with a killed whole virion trivalent vaccine (composed of BVDV-1a) during the dry period of the cows, abortion cases were existed in the late autumn 2019. During herd screening by BVDV antigen-ELISA, 2 out of 300 dams were detected positive. Following, by ear notch-based BVDV antigen-ELISA, 30 calves were detected positive. Confirmation of persistent BVDV infection was performed 3 weeks later by testing with antigen-ELISA, where 8 of 9 selected newborn calves were positive for the second time. The entire antigen-ELISA positive samples were subjected to virus isolation on MDBK cell culture and identified as non-cytopathogenic pestiviruses by indirect immunoperoxidase assay. Presence of pestivirus RNA was detected in the 8 isolates by panpestivirus RT-PCR. Analysis of the 5'UTR regions revealed that BVDV-1 r circulate in the herd. Results of this study lead to questioning the efficiency of dry period vaccination strategy against BVDV. But otherwise, vaccination with BVDV-1a can be inefficient for complete protection against BVDV-1 r. Therefore, serological relationship between mentioned subgenotypes or protection by current vaccines against latest field isolates needs to be investigated before development of new BVDV vaccine candidates.