Objectives/Context To evaluate the relationship between severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) and functional status, depression, and quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to determine the factors associated with developing moderate-to-severe NBD. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University hospital rehabilitation outpatient clinic. Participants Individuals with traumatic SCI, at least one year post-injury (N = 92). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction Score, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Results In the current sample, we found that half of the individuals with SCI had moderate-to-severe NBD. Individuals with moderate and severe NBD had lower motor FIM (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006, respectively) and SF-36 physical functioning (PF) scale (P = 0.020 and P = 0.031, respectively) scores than individuals with very minor NBD. There was no difference in the BDI scores among individuals with different levels of NBD. Individuals with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A injuries were more likely to develop moderate-to-severe NBD than those with AIS C (odds ratio (OR) = 6.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-37.79; P = 0.005) or AIS D (OR = 17.19; 95% CI 3.61-81.82; p < 0.001) injuries. Conclusion Individuals with moderate-to-severe NBD had higher levels of dependency in activities of daily living and lower SF-36 PF scale scores than individuals with very minor NBD. Among individuals with SCI, completeness of injury was a significant factor for developing moderate-to-severe NBD.