Objective. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily with pleiotropic effects on inflammation, endocrine function and the immune system. Reduced OPG levels are related to insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that serum levels of OPG may be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Material and methods. Four groups of patients were enrolled in the present study: subjects with definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 56), borderline NASH (n = 26), simple fatty liver (n = 17) and healthy controls without evidence of liver disease (n = 58). Serum levels of OPG were measured by ELISA. Results. Concentrations of OPG were significantly lower in patients with definite NASH (median: 45 pg/mL, p < 0.001) and borderline NASH (57 pg/mL, p < 0.001) than in controls (92 pg/mL). The area under the ROC curve for distinguishing between steatohepatitis (definite NASH plus borderline NASH) and healthy controls using OPG was 0.82. The use of a cut-off level < 74 pg/mL for serum OPG levels yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 75.6% and 75.9%, respectively. Conclusions. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations are reduced in patients with the more severe forms of NAFLD and may serve as a noninvasive biomarker to identify patients with NASH.