Projections of certain social ties defined by Vamik Volkan on ancient Cappadocian coins

Kırlı S., Sen N., Şahin M.

ANADOLU PSIKIYATRI DERGISI-ANATOLIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, vol.18, no.2, pp.147-160, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


Objective: This study aims to analyze the reflections of certain social ties defined by Volkan, which constitute a wider group identity when combined together and enable the group to maintain its existence, on ancient Cappadocian coins; and thereby to indicate how these concepts go beyond being concepts of the present day and apply to ancient times as well. Methods: For the purpose of this study, we screened the national and international collections of ancient Cappadocian coins, examining the symbols on these coins by taking into consideration the particulars of the historical development of the Kingdom as well as its relations with neighboring kingdoms. To that end, all significant historical events concerning the kingdom throughout the period starting before its foundation to its abolition as well as the coins issued within such period and the symbols thereon are presented in tabular form in comparison to the coins of the neighboring kingdoms of the same era. Results: Coins issued in the Kingdom of Cappadocia until 280 B.C. and the symbols thereon have evident characteristics of ancient Persian culture. Coins issued between 280-163 B.C. reflect characteristics of the Greek culture and Persian symbols together. Between 163-86 B.C. the coins acquired completely Hellenistic characteristics, which continued until 36 B.C. Another distinction is observed in symbols on the coins during the reign of King Archelaos. When compared with the neighboring kingdoms, it is seen that the symbols on Cappadocian coins have characteristics both similar to, and evidently distinct from those of the neighboring kingdoms. Discussion and conclusion: The data obtained show that the concepts defined by Volkan also apply to ancient times in the processes of formation and maintenance of a larger group.