A new species, Linum vuralianum Yilmaz & Kaynak, is described and illustrated from west Anatolia, Turkey. It is closest to L. flavum L., but differs by its annual or biennial life form, the presence of rosette leaves at anthesis, and the absence of staminodes. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) threat category and observations on the population are noted. The geographical distribution of the new species and its related taxon is given. (C) 2008 The Linnean Society of London.