The objective of this study was to use the Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) isobaric label-based proteomic approach, in order to identify new potential biomarkers for the treatment monitoring of canine leishmaniosis that could not be identified by the use of gel-based techniques. For this purpose serum samples were obtained from 5 clinically diseased dogs before and one month after the treatment of canine leishmaniosis. The non-depleted serum samples were subjected to reduction, alkylation and trypsin digestion, and the resulting peptides were labeled using 6-plex TMT reagents. To obtain information about protein identities and relative quantification, liquid chromatography-MS analysis of multiplexed TMT-labeled peptides was employed. This gel-free, label-based quantitative proteomic approach enabled identification of 117 canine proteins. Among these, 23 showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in expression (two downregulated and 21 upregulated ranging from 1.25 to 2.5 fold change). Comparison of gel-free TMT-based quantification and a gel-based approach previously applied to the same samples resulted in the identification of some common markers (Apo-A1, vitamin D binding protein and RBP4). However, 20 additional differentially represented proteins were highlighted by the gel-free approach, 13 of which have not been previously reported in canine leishmaniosis. In conclusion, the TMT-based proteomic approach allowed identification of new serum proteins that significantly change in concentration after canine leishmaniosis treatment. These proteins are involved in various physiopathological processes such as inflammatory, coagulation or defense mechanisms, and could potentially be suitable biomarkers for treatment monitoring of this parasitic disease.