Utilization of glycosyltransferases as a seamless tool for synthesis and modification of the oligosaccharides-A review

Ali M. Y., Liaqat F., Khazi M. I. B., Sethupathy S., Zhu D.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES, vol.249, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 249
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.125916
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: No


Glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyze the transfer of active monosaccharide donors to carbohydrates to create a wide range of oligosaccharide structures. GTs display strong regioselectivity and stereoselectivity in producing glycosidic bonds, making them extremely valuable in the in vitro synthesis of oligosaccharides. The synthesis of oligosaccharides by GTs often gives high yields; however, the enzyme activity may experience product inhibi-tion. Additionally, the higher cost of nucleotide sugars limits the usage of GTs for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this review, we comprehensively discussed the structure and mechanism of GTs based on recent literature and the CAZY website data. To provide innovative ideas for the functional studies of GTs, we summarized several remarkable characteristics of GTs, including folding, substrate specificity, regioselectivity, donor sugar nucleo-tides, catalytic reversibility, and differences between GTs and GHs. In particular, we highlighted the recent advancements in multi-enzyme cascade reactions and co-immobilization of GTs, focusing on overcoming prob-lems with product inhibition and cost issues. Finally, we presented various types of GT that have been suc-cessfully used for oligosaccharide synthesis. We concluded that there is still an opportunity for improvement in enzymatically produced oligosaccharide yield, and future research should focus on improving the yield and reducing the production cost.