Genetic heterogeneity of Turkish ruminant pestiviruses was investigated by phylogenetic analysis of complete N-pro encoding nucleotide sequences. A total of 30 virus isolates obtained from 15 provinces around the country between 1997 and 2005 were included in the phylogenetic analysis. Virus isolates mostly originated from cattle with one isolate from sheep. The bovine isolates all belonged to BVDV-1, the sheep isolate to BVDV-2. Fifteen isolates formed a new subgroup within BVDV-1, tentatively named BVDV-1l. The remaining bovine isolates were typed as BVDV-la (n = 4), BVDV-lb (n = 4), BVDV-ld (n = 3), BVDV-If (n = 2) andBVDV-1h(n = 1). The isolates allocated to BVDV-1l originated from various geographical regions indifferent years. There was no correlation between genetic grouping and locations where isolates were obtained. Viruses originating from one farm in most cases belonged to the same subgroup (n = 5). This study indicates that the newly detected subgroup BVDV-1l is predominant and widespread in Turkey. Moreover, an ovine virus isolate was identified as the first member of BVDV-2 reported in Turkey. A serological survey using samples from western Turkey indicated that BVDV-2 is also present in cattle. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.