This cross-sectional observational study was conducted to compare breastfeeding success and breastfeeding self-efficacy levels of mothers who gave birth via vaginal delivery (spontaneous or via epidural analgesia) or cesarean section (under general or spinal anesthesia). The study was conducted between September 2019 and February 2020 in the obstetric clinic. Data were collected using a Data Collection Form, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), and the LATCH Breastfeeding Evaluation Tool. Throughout the study, we followed the STROBE Checklist. Mothers who gave birth via spontaneous vaginal delivery had a statistically higher mean Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy score (54.92 +/- 7.72; p < .001) than those who gave birth under spinal anesthesia (43.21 +/- 10.04; p < .001) and then those who gave birth via cesarean section under general anesthesia (37.39 +/- 10.64; p < .001). The difference between the delivery modes in terms of breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding success scores was statistically significant (respectively, KW = 40.168, p < .001 and KW = 52.420, p < .001). In order to increase the breastfeeding success of mothers who give birth via cesarean section under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia, lactation nurses need to strengthen the perception of breastfeeding self-efficacy and provide more breastfeeding support to them compared to mothers who give birth via SVD.