TURK KARDIYOLOJI DERNEGI ARSIVI-ARCHIVES OF THE TURKISH SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY, vol.49, no.1, 2021 (ESCI)
Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte abnormality in heart failure (HF) that can cause potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. HF patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease and older age are at higher risk of hyperkalemia. Moreover, hyperkalemia is also often associated with the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and sacubitril-valsartan. In clinical practice, the occurrence of hyperkalemia is a major concern among the clinicians and often limits RAASi use and/ or lead to dose reduction or discontinuation, thereby reducing their potential benefits for HF. Furthermore, recurrent hyperkalemia is frequent in the long-term and is associated with an increase in hyperkalemia-related hospitalizations. Therefore, management of hyperkalemia has a special importance in HF patients. However, treatment options in chronic management are currently limited. Dietary restriction of potassium is usually ineffective with variable adherence. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is commonly used, but its effectiveness is uncertain and reported to be associated with intestinal toxicity. New therapeutic options such as potassium binders have been suggested as potentially beneficial agents in the management of hyperkalemia. This document discusses prevalence, predictors and management of hyperkalemia in HF, emphasizing the importance of careful patient selection for medical treatment, uptitration of the doses of RAASi, regular surveillance of potassium and treatment options of hyperkalemia.