An investigation of engine and fuel system performance in a diesel engine operating on waste cooking oil

ULUSOY Y., ARSLAN R., KAPLAN C., Bolat A., Cedden H., Kaya A., ...More

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY, vol.13, no.1, pp.40-48, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15435075.2014.909360
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.40-48
  • Keywords: Alternative fuels, biofuel, diesel injection, engine performance, waste cooking oil, METHYL-ESTERS, BIODIESEL, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS, TESTS
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Waste cooking oil (WCO) was experimentally examined to determine whether it can be used as an alternative fuel in a 3-cylinder, 4-stroke, direct injection, 48 kW power tractor engine. The test engine was operated under full load conditions using diesel fuel and waste vegetable oil from the 2400 to 1100 rpm and performance values were recorded. Tests were performed in two stages to evaluate the effect of the waste oils on the engine life cycle. When the test engine was operated with diesel fuel and waste cooking oil; engine torque decreased between at ratio of 0.09 % and 3% according to the engine speed. While no significant difference occurs in the diesel fuel tests at the end of 100 hours of operation, an important reduction was observed in the engine torque of the WCO engine between 4.21% and 14.48% according to the engine speed, and an increase in average smoke opacity ratio was also observed. In accordance with the results obtained from the studies, it was determined that the engine performance values of waste cooking oil show similar properties with diesel fuel, but in long-term usage, performance losses increased. In the SEM analysis performed on the fuel system, there were dark deposits at the nozzle tip and stem. According to an EDX analysis at the nozzle tips, the detected elements point to engine oil ash in the combustion chamber and show coking products (C and O). The other elements (Na, S, Ca, P, Cl, and K) point to used WCO.