Determination of the factors affecting the use of fiscally protectionism instruments in international trade


Thesis Type: Doctorate

Institution Of The Thesis: Bursa Uludağ University, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Turkey

Approval Date: 2018

Thesis Language: Turkish

Student: Göksel Karaş

Supervisor: UFUK SELEN

Abstract:

Depending on the developments experienced in the world, existence of the state in the economy is changing and the international trade system is also affected from this. Free trade system is dominant paradigm during periods when minimal state view is dominant, protectionism is dominant paradigm in periods when interventionist state view is dominant. These developments are shaped by the nation-states which are the hegemon power of the period. These states are influential in their own interests, directly through bilateral relations, indirectly through other international institutions, which they are active in their institutions to direct the world system. The common points of countries with policy initiative and implementation in the world are the high levels of economic growth and development and the hegemony power they possess. While, such countries are side with the discourse of liberalization in the world, on the other side they do not hesitate from implementation the protectionist policies. In this context, protectionism instruments that the World Trade Organization permits to use under certain restrictions are implemented. These instruments can be divided into fiscally protectionism instruments and non-fiscally protectionism instruments in terms of the impact that countries have on public finance. In this study, the factors affecting the use of fiscally protectionism instruments in international trade are analyzed based both country groups and countries through negative binomial regression analysis. The study uses a data set of 17 countries from over the period 1995-2016. Negative binomial regression analysis method is used because the number of use of fiscally protectionism instruments taken as dependent variables is positive number obtained from counting numbers, contains a large number of zero values and larger than the average of the variances. Fiscally protectionism instruments are used by developed countries in front of macroeconomic objectives rather than personal interests, while medium and low-income countries mainly use macroeconomic objectives in the foreground.