The concept of tawhi̇d i̇n the theology of Ibn Al-Malahi̇mi̇

Thesis Type: Doctorate

Institution Of The Thesis: Bursa Uludağ University, SOSYAL BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ, Turkey

Approval Date: 2019

Thesis Language: Turkish


Supervisor: Orhan Şener Koloğlu


One main issue for the kalām’s argument of createdness (hudūth) to prove that Allah is the creator of the universe is related with how the changes in objects take place. Bahshamiyya and Ḥusayniyya schools within Mu‘tazila also focused on this issue and reached different conclusions using different methods. One of the main ideas that make Ḥusaynīs different than other schools in Mu‘tazila, particularly Bahshamīs, is that they proposed that the changes in objects is not because of maʿnā, but directly because of the agent (fāʿil) himself. This issue constitutes the main divergence between Bahshamiyya and Ḥusayniyya, both of which have the concept of maʿnā in the center of their philosophy of nature. While Bahshamīs propose that the changes in the object take place because of maʿnā, Ḥusaynīs argue that the cause of the same changes are due to the agent, regardless of maʿnā. In explanation of the createdness (hudūth) of objects, Bahshamīs accepted accidents (aʿrāḍ) as real entities. Since they consider the accidents that they identify real as maʿnā, the method they follow is called “method of maʿānī.” In contrast, Ḥusaynīs consider accidents, and as a result maʿnās, not as real entities but attributes that define predications (aḥkām) and states (aḥwāl) of the object. For that, the method that they used in their system is called “method of aḥwāl.” The main different between Bahshamiyya and Ḥusayniyya on the issue of demonstration of God (ithbāt al-wājib) evolved around the argument of hudūth, particularly on the concept of maʿnā that is in the center of the argument of hudūth. Another issue that Ḥusaynī school different from Bahshamiya and Ash‘ariyya is about the attributes of God. While Bahshamīs understand attributes as a state and Ash’arīs understand as a maʿnā different from Essence, Ḥusaynīs consider the attributes as the predications (aḥkām) that Allah’s essence entailed. Attributes are amrs (umūr) that makes essence “all-knowing” and “all-powerful.” These umūr are ahkām that are different than essence and provide that the essence possesses these attributes. However, the separation of these ahkām from the essence is not in an ontological sense. The separation of ahkām from the entity is only in the sense that the entity is known in the attributes of “all-knowing” and “all-powerful”. Since the attributes that are considered as ahkām are different than each other, it is possible to separately know that Allah is “all-knowing” and “all-powerful.”