The nature of the 1961 turkish constitution from the perspective of political constitutionalism

Thesis Type: Postgraduate

Institution Of The Thesis: Uludağ Üniversitesi, Turkey

Approval Date: 2018

Thesis Language: Turkish




In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the development of constitutional thought, in particular the nature of political constitutionalism through the 1961 Constitution. Constitutionalism has been developed within the framework of natural law, social contract and the principle of separation of powers. Constitutionalism mainly aims to guarantee fundamental rights and freedoms against the arbitrary administration of political power and to keep this power under control by the checkbalance mechanism. Political constitutionalism draws attention to the bonds of constitution with society. It does not consider the real owner of the Constitution as constitutive power; it considers the people who are the owners of the will of society. The concept of political constitutionalism emphasizes that constitutions, essentially political texts, must have the characteristics of a contract signed between political power and society, which in turn increases the socio-political legitimacy of constitutions. Although it is important in terms of being a constitution of society, the "constituent assembly" system applied in the 1961 Constitution was not democratic in terms of the constitution of the assembly and the lack of representation of the people. The 1961 Constitution adopted a number of provisions to achieve a pluralistic democratic regime. Perhaps the most important of these is the establishment of the Constitutional Court. The principle of the supremacy of the Constitution was not satisfied by being expressed at the theoretical level, but by the judicial review of the conformity of the laws to the constitution, real assurance and sanctions were provided. With the dual-parliamentary system, it is desired to prevent arbitrary applications based on the majority power of parliament. As to the field of rights and freedoms, systematic and detailed regulations have been made. However, amendments made in 1971 and 1973, along with all of these regulations, introduced regulations for the military authority to obtain privileges in the face of civilian authority.